Scurvy is a nutritional disease that develops due to insufficient dietary intake of vitamin C. This disease is not observed in infants as breast milk contains required amounts of vitamin C. Even the milk formulas used for infants are fortified with required doses of vitamin C. Scurvy is most commonly observed in adults, old age people and in malnourished children. Deficiency generally develops due to poor intake of fruits and vegetables and increased use of vitamin by the immune system and in the detoxification process. Scurvy symptoms develop if the deficiency of vitamin C continues for few months.
Mastitis is commonly called breast infection and it refers to any infection that affects the breast tissues. Mastitis is normally caused by the staphylococcus aureus bacteria that are present on normal skin. The bacteria enter breast tissues through a crack in the skin (normally the nipple) after surgery or an injury.
The fatty tissues of the breasts get infected and inflamed. This inflammation presses on the milk ducts causing lumps and pain of the infected breast. Mastitis occurs usually in breastfeeding women and sometimes due to the presence of a rare form of breast cancer. This is called inflammatory breast cancer and it presents similar symptoms to breast infections.
Gingivitis is also commonly called periodontal disease or gum disease. When the gingivae (gums) become red and swollen and start to bleed, the disease is called gingivitis. Sometimes, the gums exudate or their normal contours change. When not infected, the gums or gingivae are firm and adapt themselves tightly to the teeth.
Keratinized gingiva, found near the crown of the teeth is pink stippled tissue. This tissue must cover the space found between the crowns. Non-keratinized gingivae found away from the crowns are red, movable, and highly vascular and form a continuous layer with the inner lining of the cheeks (buccal mucosa). When a tongue depressor presses on the gums, normal gums will not bleed.
Cardiomyopathy is a general term that refers to weakening of heart muscles. It occurs when there are other heart problems or when the heart does not pump in its normal way. When patients have cardiomyopathy, it may lead to heart failure when the heart does not pump sufficient blood to the body.
Typhoid or enteric fever is an infection caused by the Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) bacteria. This disease is spread through contaminated drinks, food or water. When you consume any contaminated product, the bacteria enters the intestines and from here to the blood stream, gallbladder, lymph nodes, spleen, liver and other parts.
Some infected people even if they have been cured can carry the S.typhi bacteria in their bodies and release them in the stools thereby acting as carriers of the disease for many years. This disease is widely prevalent in developing countries.
Spondylitis is also known as ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid spondylitis or Spondylarthropathy. This causes joint inflammation, especially the large joints, of the spinal bones, and between the pelvis and spine. This disease is long term and invariably results in the affected spinal bones fusing together.
Lateral epicondylitis, epitrochlear bursitis are the other names for tennis elbow. This medical condition causes a soreness, inflammation or pain of the upper arm on the lateral (outer) side. The pain is located near the elbow. Sometimes tennis elbow pain could be due to the tendon fibers suffering a partial tear. Tendon fibers connect bone to muscle. The tear can be near or at the origin of the fibers.
Liver cancer is called hepatocellular carcinoma or primary liver cell carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the cause of most liver cancers and originates in the liver. It differs from metastatic liver cancer that originates in other organs like the colon or breast and then spreads to the liver.
Bulimia nervosa is caused due to continuous binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting, diuretic or laxative abuse, excessive exercising for at least 3 months or fasting. This is a somewhat compensatory behavior following excessive eating. More women than men indulge in this kind of behavior.
Symptoms of bulimia affect 1.6% pubescent and young women and 0.5% young men of similar age. Those who are affected by bulimic symptoms are overly worried about external appearances – especially body weight and shape. Bulimia nervosa is different from anorexia nervosa for it affects people of normal weight.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects women who have an imbalance of the female sex hormones. This can cause cysts to form in the ovaries (cysts are fluid-filled sacs that are formed inside or on the ovaries), changes in the skin and menstrual cycle, difficulty in getting pregnant and other health problems. It is also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome, polycystic ovary disease, polycystic ovaries or polyfollicular ovarian disease.